The determinist approach proposes that all behavior is caused by preceding factors and is thus predictable. The causal laws of determinism form the basis of science.
Free will is the idea that we are able to have some choice in how we act and assumes that we are free to choose our behavior, in other words we are self determined.
For example, people can make a free choice as to whether to commit a crime or not (unless they are a child or they are insane). This does not mean that behavior is random, but we are free from the causal influences of past events. According to freewill a person is responsible for their own actions.
Some approaches in psychology see the source of determinism as being outside the individual, a position known as environmental determinism. For example, Bandura (1961) showed that children with violent parents will in turn become violent parents through observation and imitation.
Others see it from coming inside i.e., in the form of unconscious motivation or genetic determinism – biological determinism. E.g., high IQ has been related to the IGF2R gene (Chorney et a., 1998).
Behaviorists are strong believers in determinism. Their most forthright and articulate spokesman has been B. F. Skinner. Concepts like “free will" and “motivation" are dismissed as illusions that disguise the real causes of human behavior.
For Skinner (1971) these causes lay in the environment – more specifically in physical and psychological reinforcers and punishments. It is only because we are not aware of the environmental causes of our own behavior or other people’s that we are tricked into believing in our ability to choose.
In Skinner’s scheme of things the person who commits a crime has no real choice. (S)he is propelled in this direction by environmental circumstances and a personal history, which makes breaking the law natural and inevitable. For the law-abiding an accumulation of reinforcers has the opposite effect. Having been rewarded for following rules in the past the individual does so in the future. There is no moral evaluation or even mental calculation involved. All behavior is under stimulus control.
The other main supporters of determinism are those who adopt a biological perspective. However for them it is internal, not external, forces that are the determining factor. According to sociobiology evolution governs the behavior of a species and genetic inheritance that of each individual within it. For example Bowlby (1969) states a child has an innate (i.e. inborn) need to attach to one main attachment figure (i.e. monotropy).
Personality traits like extraversion or neuroticism, and the behavior associated with them, are triggered by neurological and hormonal processes within the body. There is no need for the concept of an autonomous human being. Ultimately this view sees us as no more than biological machines and even consciousness itself is interpreted as a level of arousal in the nervous system.
However, a problem with determinism is that it is inconsistent with society's ideas of responsibility and self control that form the basis of our moral and legal obligations.
An additional limitation concerns the facts that psychologists cannot predict a person's behavior with 100% accuracy due to the complex interaction of variables which can influence behavior.
One of the main assumptions of the humanistic approach is that humans have free will; not all behavior is determined. Personal agency is the humanistic term for the exercise of free will. Personal agency refers to the choices we make in life, the paths we go down and their consequences.
For humanistic psychologists such as Maslow (1943) and Rogers (1951) freedom is not only possible but also necessary if we are to become fully functional human beings. Both see self-actualisation as a unique human need and form of motivation setting us apart from all other species. There is thus a line to be drawn between the natural and the social sciences.
To take a simple example, when two chemicals react there is no sense in imagining that they could behave in any other way than the way they do. However when two people come together they could agree, fall out, come to a compromise, start a fight and so on. The permutations are endless and in order to understand their behavior we would need to understand what each party to the relationship chooses to do.
Cognitive psychologists are also inclined to attribute importance to free will, and adopt a soft determinism view. However whereas humanists are especially interested in our choice of ends (how each of us sees the road to self actualization) cognitive psychologists are more inclined to focus on the choice of means. In other words for them it is the rational processing of information which goes into the making of a decision which is their main interest.
Conscious reflection on our own behavior is seen as the best way of achieving goals and learning from mistakes. Calculation, strategy, organization etc are interpreted as key elements – not only in governing the choices that we make but also in helping us make the “right" choices in particular situations.
Mental illnesses appear to undermine the concept of freewill. For example, individuals with OCD lose control of their thoughts and actions and people with depression lose control over their emotions.
Ranged against the deterministic psychologies of those who believe that what “is" is inevitable are therefore those who believe that human beings have the ability to control their own destinies. However there is also an intermediate position that goes back to the psychoanalytic psychology of Sigmund Freud.
At first sight Freud seems to be a supporter of determinism in that he argued that our actions and our thoughts are controlled by the unconscious. However the very goal of therapy was to help the patient overcome that force. Indeed without the belief that people can change therapy itself makes no sense.
This insight has been taken up by several neo-Freudians. One of the most influential has been Erich Fromm (1941). In “Fear of Freedom" he argues that all of us have the potential to control our own lives but that many of us are too afraid to do so.
As a result we give up our freedom and allow our lives to be governed by circumstance, other people, political ideology or irrational feelings. However determinism is not inevitable and in the very choice we all have to do good or evil Fromm sees the essence of human freedom.
Psychologists who take the free will view suggest that determinism removes freedom and dignity, and devalues human behavior. By creating general laws of behavior, deterministic psychology underestimates the uniqueness of human beings and their freedom to choose their own destiny.What is the meaning of padoru? What are ear doctors called? How to answer what is your greatest weakness? What does plc stand for in education? How to make a weakness potion in minecraft? What is the meaning of 1441? Principles on how sea creacures learn to do tricks? How do i make my kick tricks better? How to stop a porn addiction? how to make hamberger helper without meat How to remove a hickey in seconds with toothpaste? What does colonize mean? why wont download helper install android firefox How to pronounce hegemony? Find me where dreams are lost in reality meaning? What does kys mean on snapchat? What is the meaning of testimonial propaganda? What is the meaning of millenium development goals? What is the meaning of humpty dumpty nursery rhyme? What does geothermal mean? How to wear suspenders? how do they put helper power in the middle What does increasing marginal opportunity costs mean? What does sexual orientation mean? What is the meaning of charcuterie board? What is the meaning of fruit in the bible? What does concealer do? Tips on how to lose weight in just your stomach? What does what mean? How to watch euphoria? What does a pussy pump do? How to max bench press tips? What is a oxymoron? How to join the army? How to cash a check without id? How to cut mango? In the show new tricks why did actor playing jack halford leave show? What currency does canada use? Experts some tips how? What does a spade mean? How to draw pokemon? How to make fried pickles in air fryer? What time is the kentucky derby? What does petechiae look like? How long does it take for antidepressants to work? What are some easy magic tricks with cards? What is the meaning of grammar in english? What does a hematologist check for? How to get views on tiktok? How to get wordle? What does cx mean? What does hymn mean? helper to pull underwear up and down when going to bathroom after shoulder surger;y on dominant arm How to cure dandruff? How to trade bitcoin? Tips for cats who scratching furniture? What is a naics code? What does josiah mean? How to share a post on instagram? What is the meaning of high frequency words? How to change gun tricks rdr2 online? What does eskimo mean? what is file association helper nico mak computing How to unclog a tub? Tips and tricks when drafting fantasy basketball? How does chriss angel do his tricks? How do i cook beef tips to make them tender? on ford motor home which is better helper shocks or air springs What does it mean to be right brain dominant? What is the meaning of compatible? How to replace an engine oil pan gasket tips? What does blown mean? Tricks to how to download youtube video? What do subject mean in email? How to see what motherboard i have? How to ask a girl out over text? What is the temperature? How to initiate sex? Why to not take tips as an uber driver? How to make a gnome? how do you make hearth arena helper work What does tigers eye do? What tricks do you learn in art of pole? William butler yeats when you are old meaning? how much is a santa's helper bio vf5000 limited edition buyer worth Tips on how to apply white makeup for halloween? What are invoices? What does blow job mean? Tips on how to grow beard if have low testosterone? What is the meaning of unsustainable? What does masc mean? What is chastity belt meaning? What is minimum wage in ohio? How to do braid tricks with two hair ties? What is a hipster? What does uranus mean in astrology? What does hydrogen peroxide do? What does pedigree mean? What does br mean?