According to psychologist Jean Piaget, children progress through a series of four critical stages of cognitive development. Each stage is marked by shifts in how kids understand the world. Piaget believed that children are like "little scientists" and that they actively try to explore and make sense of the world around them.
Through his observations of his children, Piaget developed a stage theory of intellectual development that included four distinct stages:
- The sensorimotor stage, from birth to age 2
- The preoperational stage, from age 2 to about age 7
- The concrete operational stage, from age 7 to 11
- The formal operational stage, which begins in adolescence and spans into adulthood.
Jean Piaget's Background
Jean Piaget was born in Switzerland in 1896. He published his first scientific paper at the tender age of 10 – a 100-word description of an albino sparrow in a naturalist magazine. Between the ages of 15 and 19 he published numerous papers on mollusks and was even offered a job as a curator at a museum, although he had to decline the offer since he still had two years of high school to complete.
While he developed an interest early on in how people come to know the world around them, he didn't receive any formal training in psychology until after he had completed his doctoral degree at the University of Neuchatel. After receiving his Ph.D. degree at age 22 in natural history, Piaget formally began a career that would have a profound impact on both psychology and education. After studying briefly with Carl Jung, he happened to meet Theodore Simon, one of Alfred Binet's collaborators.
Simon offered Piaget a position supervising the standardization of the intelligence tests developed by Binet and Simon.
Piaget developed an interest in the intellectual development of children. Based on his observations, he concluded that children were not less intelligent than adults, they simply think differently. Albert Einstein called Piaget's discovery "so simple only a genius could have thought of it."
Piaget's stage theory describes the cognitive development of children. Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. In Piaget's view, early cognitive development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses to changes in mental operations.
Piaget's interest in child cognitive development was influenced by watching his 13-month-old nephew, Gerard, at play. By chance, Piaget observed the toddler playing with a ball. When the ball rolled under a table where the boy could still see it, Gerard simply retrieved the ball and continued playing. When the ball rolled under a sofa out of his sight, however, the child began looking for it where he had last seen it. This reaction struck Piaget as irrational.
Piaget came to believe that children lack what he referred to as the object concept - the knowledge that objects are separate and distinct from both the individual and the individual's perception of that object.
Jean Piaget set out to study his daughter Jacqueline as she developed through infancy, toddlerhood, and childhood. He quickly noted that during the early months of his daughter's life, she seemed to believe that objects ceased to exist once they were out of her sight. At nearly a year, she started to search actively for objects that were hidden from her view although she made mistakes similar to the one Gerard made. By 21 months, Jacqueline had become skilled at finding hidden objects and understood that objects had an existence separate from her perception of them.
Piaget's observations of his nephew and daughter reinforced his budding hypothesis that children's minds were not merely smaller versions of adult minds. Instead, he proposed, intelligence is something that grows and develops through a series of stages. Older children don't just think faster than younger children, he suggested. Instead, there are both qualitative and quantitative differences between the thinking of young children versus older children.What is the meaning of equate? How to get rid of carpenter bees wd40? What is in the infrastructure bill 2021? What does bridal and cold shower mean? How long does it take to get a phd? What are two shooting tips in basketball? What does mustard gas do? What planet is visible tonight? what is a helper cert What does pale poop mean? How to declare an array in java? Steep tricks how to? which of the following does not help distinguish t helper cells from t cytotoxic cells? Stardew valley tips on how to fish? How to purchase bitcoin? What is a gerund? What are three best tips to manage time? How to measure tire tread? What is the meaning of mah in powerbank? How to add bookmark on iphone? What does cmb mean? Tips on how to select stocks to buy? How to make a enchantment table? Tips on how to impress a girl? What does zooted mean? What does sport mode do? how to disable browser helper objects vista What time is the jake paul fight? What does grind mean? harlequin romance novel of a catherine who marries her father's helper How to turn on subtitles on disney plus? What does pending mean on snapchat? How to do tricks on a acro bike? How to do box braids? What episode does yennefer get her magic back? Important tips when starting a franchise? How to be a 3% man? What is the meaning of declining? How to draw an x in a box? how to move quest helper 2.4.3 What time does the canelo alvarez fight start? What does link mean in text? What is the meaning of mise en scene? What is the meaning of seizure? How big is ukraine compared to us? How to use menthol filter tips? How to make pie crust from scratch? Windows speech recognition what can i say tips? How your brain tricks you? What does out of context mean? What time does concord mills close? how much does it cost for a home helper in louisville kentucky What does apprehensive mean? How to get zoomers shadow to so special tricks? What is prime rate today? What's the children's book about the little girl who tricks a fox? What does jay mean? What is the meaning smh? What time is the football game tonight? What is 1/4 of 12? What does growth mean? How long does food poisoning take to start? "os x" "bundle" where to put helper executables? What are/some tricks to help you pass a kidney stone in one night? How to go back to tips with new apple os 9.2? What does aaliyah mean? How to cancel order on doordash? How to estimate fraction sums and differences tricks? How to become a radiology tech? What does it mean when you can see your veins? What does prissy mean? What is molested mean? How to teach your dog fun tricks? How to screenshot on s21? How clear tips for water flosser? how are helper t cells and cytotoxic t cells activated How to change my voicemail? why do catholics refer to a helper as a familiar spirit Why can't i see my tips on postmates? What are some personality traits? What does whelping mean? how to use the where clause and arg in sql database helper Iron man tricks who? What does skewed to the left mean? What color is it eye tricks? What is the meaning of passover? How to make a boomerang? Why buy the milk when the cow is free meaning? How to watch super bowl on roku? You tube how to pick up girls in a bar with card tricks? What tricks can i do with a shell and two coins? How to cook rice in microwave? What does tb mean in text? What does rich mean? how does santa's helper on snapchat work How long to saute mushrooms? What does clout mean? what makes the sauce packet in hamburger helper clump up How to turn off descale light on keurig? What does at mean on a tire? How to get arceus? What does taro meaning japanese?